Balasore is one of the coastal Districts of Odisha. It lies on the northern most part of the state. It was a part of the ancient Kalinga which later became a territory of Toshal or Utkal, till the death of Mukunda Dev. Balasore as a separate District was created in October 1828. originally it was in Bengal presidency.
Balasore District covers an area of 3634 sq kms having total population of 23,17,419 as per 2011 census. The District is surrounded by Medinipur District of West Bengal in its northern side, Bay of Bengal in its east, Bhadrak District in its south and Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar Districts lies on its western side. The District is located at 20.48 to 21.59 North Latitude and 86.16 to 87.29 east Longitude. Total male population of the District is 11,84,371 and female population is 11,33,048 as per 2001 census.
It’s climate is generally hot with high humidity. May is the hottest month and December is the coolest one. Monsoon generally arrives in the district from 14th of June every year. The average rainfall of the District is 1568.4 mm. The rainfall during June to December constitutes at least 75 Percent of the total rainfall that this District experiences and it has an average of 62 rainy days in the year.
This district consists of two subdivisions namely Balasore and Nilagiri. There are 12 Tahasils for 12 Blocks of the district. Balasore is the main town of the district and is also its centre of economic growth. The primary occupation of people in the district is cultivation. This district is mainly known for cultivation of paddy. Because rice is the staple cereal of the local people. Hybrid varieties of seeds are being developed and land reform programs are being planned for the maximum usage of the wastelands, promising to enhance the district’s economic stability in the near future. Industries, Agriculture, Fishing and Tourism are the four major revenue sources of Balasore District. Birla Tyres, Balasore Alloys Limited, Emami Paper Mills Limited and Polar Pharma India Limited are some of the large–scale industries functioning in this district.
Being an agrarian economy, agriculture is the main stay of the people of Balasore District. It is in the coastal section of Odisha blessed with hot and humid cliamte, with alluvium soil and intersected by the perennial rivers, which collectively provides conducive infrastructure for the growth of agriculture in the region. Rice, Pulses, oil seeds like groundnut, mustard, castor and linseed are grown in the District of Balasore.
Education has played an important role here, both before and after Independence. At present many primary and secondary schools imparting education both in English medium and Odia medium. Many degree colleges, law colleges, colleges of education, engineering schools, song and music colleges, art and craft colleges, industrial training institutes, management colleges and computer institutes are found at different places in the district. Fakir Mohan University, a new and progressive university located in Balasore town.
Fakir Mohan Senapati famously known as Vyasa Kabi, Laxmi Narayana Sahu an eminent social worker and writer, Radhanath Ray (the great poet of modern India Literature) and Bagha Jatin who courageously faught against the British rule are the prominent personalities born in Balasore District. Many fairs and festivals celebrated here throughout the year. Main festivals are Durga Puja, Siva Ratri, Raja Parva, Makar Sankranti, Kali Puja, Ganesh Chaturthi, Car festival and Dola Purnima. Balasore District is famous for the most attarctive and enjoyable game, Akhada, played during Durga Puja and during Moharrum by Muslims.
There are beautiful sea beaches and many temples attract local and national tourists. Chandipur, Talasari sea beach, Chawmukh sea beach, Kashaphal sea beach are the famous sea beaches of the District. Temples like Panchalingeswar, Khirochora Gopinath, Langaleswar, Laxmannath, Chandaneswar, Maninageswar are the point of attractions.